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Targeted Intervention to Promote Treatment Adherence of Bipolar Disorder Patients at Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

Article
Tatiana Perrino, William Beardslee, William Beardslee, Guillermo Bernal, Ahnalee Brincks, Gracelyn Cruden, George Howe, Velma Murry, Hilda Pantin, Guillermo Prado, Irwin Sandler

Abstract

Certain subgroups of youth are at high risk for depression and elevated depressive symptoms, and experience limited access to quality mental health care. Examples are socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ ethnic minority, and sexual minority youth. Research shows that there are efficacious interventions to prevent youth depression and depressive symptoms. These preventive interventions have the potential to play a key role in addressing these mental health disparities by reducing youth risk factors and enhancing protective factors. However, there are comparatively few preventive interventions directed specifically to these vulnerable subgroups, and sample sizes of diverse subgroups in general prevention trials are often too low to assess whether preventive interventions work equally well for vulnerable youth compared to other youth. In this paper, we describe the importance and need for “scientific equity,” or equality and fairness in the amount of scientific knowledge produced to understand the potential solutions to such health disparities. We highlight possible strategies for promoting scientific equity, including the following: increasing the number of prevention research participants from vulnerable subgroups, conducting more data synthesis analyses and implementation science research, disseminating preventive interventions that are efficacious for vulnerable youth, and increasing the diversity of the prevention science research workforce. These strategies can increase the availability of research evidence to determine the degree to which preventive interventions can help address mental health disparities. Although this paper utilizes the prevention of youth depression as an illustrative case example, the concepts are applicable to other health outcomes for which there are disparities, such as substance use and obesity.

Achieving Ecological Validity of Occupation-Based Interventions for Healthy Aging

Article
Elsa M. Orellano-Colón, Nelson Varas-Díaz, Guillermo Bernal

Abstract

Aim: To develop a culturally sensitive occupation-based health promotion intervention for older Hispanic adults who live alone. Methods: We used a mixed method design for the content validation of the intervention and the Ecological Validity Model (EVM) to culturally center the intervention. In the quantitative phase, aging experts as well as community members from two activity centers for the elderly in Puerto Rico completed a content validity ratio exercise. In the qualitative phase, we conducted three focus groups with these participants. Data analysis included content validity ratio and a directed content analysis. Results: This resulted in a working version of the intervention protocol addressing the eight dimensions of the EVM. Conclusions: The EVM can be used to culturally center preventive interventions to other ethnic minority groups to augment the external validity and cultural competence of interventions. Future research must test the feasibility of this new intervention.

El desarrollo de la psicología en Cuba en la obra del Dr. Alfonso Bernal del Riesgo [The development of psychology in Cuba in the work of Dr. Alfonso Bernal del Riesgo]

Article
Isabel Louro Bernal, Guillermo Bernal

Abstract

 El desarrollo de la psicología en Cuba en la obra del Dr. Alfonso Bernal del Riesgo Resumen Los hitos relevantes en el desarrollo de la Psicología en Cuba se vinculan a la obra del psicólogo cubano Dr. Alfonso Bernal del Riesgo. Método. Construcción de una cronología basada en la investigación histórica, la revisión documental y las entrevistas. Resultados. Se establecieron tres períodos: 1) Bases teóricas de la Psicología General y la Cívica, donde aborda el concepto de cubanosofìa, la comprensión psicológica y socio cultural de la identidad cubana; 2) El desarrollo de la Psicología como asignatura en la Universidad de la Habana y como carrera universitaria independiente de la Filosofía, así como la fundación de la Sociedad Cubana de Psicología y la Revista Cubana de Psicología como su órgano científico; 3) La Psicología como ciencia vinculada a diferentes ámbitos de actuación profesional. El estudio de la obra de Bernal del Riesgo permite comprender procesos en el desarrollo histórico de la Psicología en Cuba. Palabras claves: Historia de la Psicología, Cuba, Bernal del Riesgo The development of psychology in Cuba in the work of Dr. Alfonso Bernal del Riesgo Abstract The research relevant milestones on the development of psychology in Cuba are linked to the work of Cuban psychologist Dr. Alfonso Bernal del Riesgo. Method. The method consisted in the construction of a time line, review of historical documents, and conducting interviews. Results. Three periods were identified: 1) The theoretical basis of Psychology and Civics, approached from the notion of cubanosofía, that is the psychological sociocultural understanding of Cuban identity; 2) the develop-ment of psychology as a major at the University of Havana and independent of philosophy as well as the founding of the Cuban Society of Psychology and the Journal of Cuban Psychology as its primary scientific publication; 3) Psychology as a science linked to different areas of professional activities. The study of the life and work of Bernal del Riesgo allows for an understanding of processes in the historical development of psychology in Cuba.

 

Methodological challenges in ethnic, racial, and ethnocultural groups

Book Chapter
Guillermo Bernal

Abstract

In this chapter, we write from the colonized position and in support of strategies that can move the field of multicultural psychology toward decolonization of both research methods and key concepts. Indeed, we believe that what is often understood as multicultural psychology needs to be decolonized as well. To the extent that the multicultural movement privileges domestic issues in the United States, it fails to acknowledge the broader multicultural international context of colonization and oppression. In this chapter, we focus primarily on the methodological challenges faced by investigators working primarily with ethnocultural populations in the United States. Our thesis is that the key task at hand is engaging in decolonizing methodologies, as suggested by Smith (1999). The context of where people work and live is not inconsequential. For example, we work in Puerto Rico, a territory of the United States that was first colonized by Spain and later colonized by the United States as of 1898. It remains one of the last colonies of the Western hemisphere, and as such its political, economic, and social structures are subordinate to the United States. With few exceptions, the development of nearly all psychological research, training, and practice responds to broader historical, social, economic, and political forces (Bernal, 2006). Thus, it is with the critical lens of a subordinated position that we approach the issue of research methods.